God of Heaven
*Enki Gibil (4)Ninhursag Shara *Enlil
+ Ninki (Gerra) +Shulae +Ninlil
(Ea, Nudimmud) Fire God (Ninmah, Nintu, (Elli)
Water God Mammi, Belittili) God of Air
(Lord Earth) (Earth Goddess) |
.------''----. '---. .-----------.----------'`--.
(3)Marduk Nanshe Ninurta | Ishkur
+Sarpanit (Morality +Bau Nanna +Shala
Goddess) (Ningirsu, +Ningal (Adad,
Nimrod) (Sin, Yerah) Teshub)
War God(ess) Moon God Storm God
(2)Nergal Inanna Utu
+Ereshkigal +Dumuzi + Aya
(Irrigal, Erra) (Ishtar (+Tammuz), (Shammash)
God & Goddess of Ashtoeth[??]) Sun God
the Underworld Goddess of love
Sphere of Influence
Notes accompanying the family tree:
* Enki, An, and Enlil are the leaders of the Anunaki, Enki
'seems' to be the TRUE leader, with An more of a 'figurehead'.
1. These two are
sometimes recorded as direct offspring of An (Ishkur in the Epic of Anzu,
Inanna in the Epic of Gilgamesh); however Ereshkigal is consistently
recorded as Inanna's sister, similarly Utu as her brother - therefore if she
were to shift up the generations, arguably they should do likewise. Note
also that gods are often misleadingly described as the 'son or daughter of
An' as a poetic metaphor, perhaps to indicate that they are part of the main
pantheon. The determination of his main offspring as shown is based on more
2. Nergal and Ninurta are
sometimes assimilated with each other; I suspect this is because, in Enlil
and Ninlil, Nergal is reported as their second son whereas Ninurta is not
mentioned. Furthermore, in Erra (Nergal) And Ishum, Nergal is again reported
as Enlil's son. Occasionally Nergal is also assimilated with Gibil - this
may be due to nothing more than the similarity in their Akkadian names of
Erra and Gerra respectively.
3. Marduk is only
recorded as Enki's son in the Epic of Creation; he only came to prominence
in the late Assyro-Babylonian period, so the importance attached to him by
some must be viewed with some scepticism. Note also that he is so well known
by this, his Akkadian name, that I have made an exception and used this
throughout; his original Sumerian name was Asalluhe.
4. The fact that
Ninhursag appears to be Enlil's consort in that they are Ninurta's parents
does not detract from the fact that in Enki and Ninhursag she is clearly
Enki's consort. The continual editing of texts, the assimilation of one god
with another at various times, and the polygamous and incestuous nature of
most relationships, mean that we should not get too hung up on such details.
Although, of course, such changes in pairings may have a deeper esoteric
1. George Smith, The
Chaldean Account of Genesis (London, 1876), Chapter 4.
2. Samuel Noah Kramer,
The Sumerians (University of Chicago Press, 1963), Chapter 4, pp. 122-3.
3. Stephanie Dalley,
Myths from Mesopotamia (Oxford University Press, 1989), Glossary, pp.